ISQFD 2002 >
Using Comprehensive QFD ...
Stefan Schurr, Craig T. Smith
Using Comprehensive QFD Including Function, Reliability and Cost as the
Backbone for a Design For Six Sigma Strategy
Abstract: With New Product Development (NPD) increasingly subject to fierce,
global competition, accelerating pace of change and massive technology shifts,
competitive realities require new paradigms. Innovation and radically new
designs are replacing gradual improvement of well-understood technology in
an increasing number of industries. The problem is that typical new designs
still perform only in the 2-3 Sigma range.
Six Sigma has been described as the single most important change in corporate
culture by its early adopters like GE, providing enormous bottom-line benefits
through analysis and control of both established and new processes. Design
for Six Sigma (DFSS) performs the logical step of introducing Six Sigma in
New Product Development. It provides a set of design tools and methodologies
for improving product, process and service development to consistently provide
reliable and manufacturable products, processes and services that consistently
meet customer requirements at six sigma quality levels.
As a method for structured product planning and development, Quality Function
Deployment (QFD) is seen as a natural part of most DFSS strategies helping
to specify a product's critical-to-quality characteristics based on the
customer's wants and needs. However, many DFSS strategies fall short of
providing the rigor and traceability that would be needed by limiting QFD
to the House of Quality or a linear cascade of houses.
Here, a comprehensive QFD approach is described covering critical-to-quality
characteristics (CTQs), functions, cost, faults and innovation for use with
Design For Six Sigma. A system of 15 matrices integrates and links QFD with
Six Sigma Scorecards, TRIZ, Experiment Planning, Functional Analysis, Target
Costing, New Concept Selection and Matrix-based FMEA.
Using a conventional Voice of the Customer Table (VOCT) or House of Quality,
needs are listed and correlated to CTQs, functions, and faults. Estimated and
required performance levels for CTQs are then compared in the Six Sigma
Scorecard, providing a first feedback on expected reliability early in the
process. The scorecard enables stakeholders to track defect levels and
facilitates subsequent dialog to improve the performance. TRIZ is used to
help find new solutions for design optimisation conflicts from QFD "roof"
matrix of contradictions and the Six Sigma Scorecard. To provide a
solution-independent problem description functions are analysed using
Value Analysis, FAST and AHP. A Target Costing Scorecard is set up to
identify and prioritise areas for improvement based on cost and value.
New ideas are evaluated using New Concept Selection, and based on the
parts-functions matrix a FMEA is created for the system being designed.
To help the team using a common representation and toolset, the FMEA is
created in matrix format. The overall goal is to add enough controls to
the planning process to discover, control and eliminate any risks that may
prevent the product from performing at the targeted six sigma
By constructing an interrelated system of matrices documenting relationships
between needs and solutions QFD is becoming a repository of product planning
knowledge forming the central nervous system of DFSS. QFD and DFSS do not
replace existing NPD processes, but add controls to ensure continually
meeting customer requirements by providing the structure and rigor missing
in other design methodologies.
Stefan Schurr is MD of Qualica Software GmbH, a privately owned
software and consultancy firm based in Munich, Germany. Stefan holds
a masters degree in Aerospace Engineering from the Technical University
of Munich, Germany. Stefan's career has focused on New Product Development
process improvement and optimisation through use of methodologies like
QFD, helping companies to adopt QFD to shorten their development processes,
reduce costs and create more competitive products. His company's software
tools for comprehensive QFD are used by engineers and developers in companies
from a wide range of industries, including automotive, aerospace, information
technology and health care.
Craig T. Smith is VP of Rath & Strong, a Division of
Aon Consulting. He received his Bachelors degree in Textile Technology
and Management Studies with honours from the University of Leeds, England.
He also holds a Masters degree from the engineering faculty of the University
of Cape Town, South Africa. Craig was professionally certified as a Quality
Engineer by the American Society of Quality Control.
His career has been characterised by the philosophy of "Sustained Business
Results by Process Improvement and Optimisation". Over a period of 20 years
he has assisted businesses on 2 continents achieve improvement by the
consistent application of this philosophy in the roles of - Operations and
Technical Director, Group Quality Director, Managing Director and Consultant.
In addition to being involved in the broader based business aspects of our
European Consulting division, Craig, has been at the vanguard of our
successful Six Sigma consulting business. His recent achievements include
the support of breakthrough strategies that have delivered significant
financial benefits - amounting to Millions of Euro - as a result of the effective
deployment of the Six-Sigma Philosophy, Methodology, and Techniques in
© 2002 QFD Institut Deutschland e. V. All rights reserved.